Flash is almost gone and one thing I am having to do quite a bit of at the moment is remove swf files from my Lectora titles and replace them with something else that will work in future.

I used Flash files quite a lot with screen recordings of systems software. I would capture the steps in Captivate or a similar screen recording app and, rather than make it a simple video, I would include interactions so that the learner would have to locate and click on the right button to progress. In the past I would output these as swf files and insert them on the relevant page in the Lectora title.

With the ongoing demise of Flash I have to come up with a new solution. Here’s what I do. If anyone else is in the same position I hope that you find this helpful. First of all, in the screen recording software publish the recording as HTML5 and save the published files

Then, in Lectora:

On the Insert Ribbon, select Web window
The Add Web Window opens
Change the Window Source from Web Address to Local Web-based content
Click on the browse button and go look for the published files
You will be looking for an HTML file, typically called index.html (but that depends how your screen recording was published)
Your content will preview in the Web window dialog box. If there are files and subfolders, make sure you select Include all files and subfolders. Then click OK
The Web Window will appear on the page. Reposition and resize accordingly. It’s an object on the page and you may wish to add other objects such as a shape behind it to give it a frame
When you publish your Lectora title you will have an extra subfolder called extern. Inside there will be one or more subfolders (depending upon how many web windows you have created in your title) with the prefix webwin. Each of these subfolders contain all of the content from the recording

And that’s it, really. If, like me, you’re finding yourself going through some of your legacy work to future-proof it, I hope that this is helpful.

Interactive board games in Lectora

Recently I sat in on the Lectora Inspiration Wednesday, “The Magic Behind Powerful eLearning Design – Learning Theory”. I always appreciate the efforts of organisations such as Trivantis to reach out to the e-learning community and offer webinars such as this to increase my knowledge as an instructional designer and developer.

The topic was really about designing e-learning to ensure it met the learner’s needs but one of the other things I took away from the session was the example; a board game style interaction so I thought I would have a go at creating my own.

I wanted to make the game random so that it would give a more unpredictable element to the experience.

Clicking the die would generate a random number between one and six, and the counter would move the relevant number of spaces on the board. When it stopped a piece of information or a question would display. The learner would need to read the information or answer the question before they could move on to get to the end of the game.

Such interactions are appropriate for presenting bite-sized information in a more engaging way than bullet points. It does take longer to create, of course, so you would need to consider whether the cost, time and effort is justified (although read on to learn about a shortcut). Also the version I created included a random element – the throw of the dice to move the counter – which meant that the learner might not see all the content. As a result you might need to include a summary of the learning points at the end.

It’s the sort of thing that could be used to help reinforce learning particularly on a topic where the learners feel they may already know the subject and may have got into bad habits. It’s an interactive way to present the information they should already know but may have forgotten as fun facts. The multiple choice questions scattered throughout add an extra element.  If you would like to try the exercise, click on the screenshot below

screenshot of e-learning game developed in Lectora
Screenshot of the finished game. Click on it to launch the game in a separate window

There were a few things I needed to do to make this work.

First of all I needed to capture a random value to send the counter on its way around the board. Lectora is one of the better authoring tools when it comes to managing variables. Somehow to me, at least, it seems more intuitive than some of the other products available. It allows you to capture a random value to a variable when you are setting up an action. If you are interested there is a great video on the Trivantis website about working with random variable values.

Screenshot of Lectora Variable dialog box showing random value
At the bottom of the value box click on the expand button to display the dialogue box and then click on the Random Value button. Choose the smallest and largest numbers that can be entered and click OK.

The next thing that I needed to do was to get the counter to move the relevant number of spaces. This was slightly more problematic for a couple of reasons. First of all I needed to counter to move from the square it had landed in which would obviously vary depending upon the random value generated. Secondly I needed to get the counter round corners; as you can see from the screenshot the board game meandered a little bit.

I spent some time wondering whether I could capture the random value and use that to tell Lectora where the counter had got to and needed to move from. In the event it seemed easier to introduce a learner interaction to capture that information. The learner needed to close the box that displayed when they reached the next square; I added an action to that close button to tell Lectora where we were.

Lectora isn’t so great when it comes to animating objects but it does have the move to action which allows you to move objects from one position to another.  It is possible to have objects move in a straight line. In this module I wanted them to go around corners as well.  The solution here was to have a series of move to actions in action groups. The first action group would take the counter to the corner and then trigger a second action group that would move the counter on around the corner (in one or two cases there even needed to be a third action group when the counter had to go around another corner). A crucial thing was the timing of the actions. I needed to put a delay on the actions turning the corner to make sure it didn’t happen until the counter had completed its first move; otherwise it wouldn’t move all the way.

In this screenshot action group “A11 move04a” moves the counter a set distance and then fires a second action I called “turn corner” which then triggered action group “A11 move04b”

Another issue I needed to overcome was an appropriate naming convention for the action groups. I prefix them with the word “action” so that I can differentiate them from groups containing objects. The rest of the name is made up of a description of what the actions will do. In this case I also had to number the actions to keep track of them all. However, if the name becomes too long it is difficult to see it all in the dropdown list when you setting up action to run an action group, as you can see in the picture below. I had to come up with a shortened naming convention in this case.

The names of action groups were shortened so that I could see them all in the target dropdown list.

I hope that you found this an interesting read on some of the practicalities on using Lectora in creating an interactive board game with random variable values and multiple move to actions. One of the joys of Lectora is that it has many ways of doing the same thing so I would be interested in others may have resolved the same challenge. Please add your comments in the comments field at the bottom of the page.

And that shortcut I mentioned? If you feel this interaction might be useful for you but you don’t have time to create it yourself, for a short time I am making the Lectora files for you to use to base your own version on. Simply get in touch to find out more.

Lifelong learning

You never stop learning

As a learning and development professional of many years standing I recognise that I am always learning whether in my professional or personal life.

The postings here are all about my experiences as a trainer and a trainee, and as a person.  I am also constantly seeking out new information and sometimes I will share my discoveries here. Your own thoughts on my postings are more than welcome.

I am also a keen photographer; you can view my postings on that topic at www.stephentaylor.photography.

Learning to fly!

“For many of us cycling is second nature. It was something we learnt as a child and when we jump on a bicycle, even if we only do it once a year, it is something we never forget. But what’s it like to learn to ride as an adult?”

A few years ago I was privileged to work as a cycle instructor training people to ride bicycles. The most magical moments usually came when I was teaching an adult to ride a bicycle for the first time. For some reason they had missed out on the chance as a child and now they wanted to make up for it. There was one young man I recall training who was in this position; as a child he had been driven everywhere with limited independence. Or there was the sixty year old woman who had recently retired; she was now catching up on all the things she had missed out on earlier in life. I learned to cycle as a child and have no memory of the experience but this is my imagining of what it is like to learn to ride a bike as an adult based upon my experiences as a cycle instructor and Level 1 of the Bikeability cycle training scheme.

“Teaching an adult how to ride a bicycle can be broken into three steps.”

Setting off

First of all you are going to practice setting off.  Right now you don’t need to know how to balance so your instructor will take hold of the handlebars to hold the bicycle upright. Sit on the bike and hold the handlebars with your fingers covering the brake levers. One foot will be on the ground and the other should already be on a pedal, at about the two o’clock for maximum leverage. You are going to practice pushing down on the pedal and picking up the other one as it comes around. For the first few goes you can look down to see what you are doing but gradually you should begin to look up and where you are planning to cycle.

Stopping safely

The second step (usually combined with the setting off) is learning how to stop safely and under control. Most new cyclists imagine they are going to  fall off and this can make it difficult for them to be able to start riding independently. If you can feel that you can bring the bike to a safe stop under your own control then you are more likely to be able to set off on your own.  Your instructor should still be holding the handlebars; all you need to do is set off for a short distance then, when you want to stop, squeeze the brakes gently and set one foot down on the ground once the bike has stopped. Practice this until you are happy you are able to stop the bike safely.

Staying upright

“For this you will need a big open space.”

Once you have got the hang of setting off and stopping the bicycle now you are ready to move on to balancing.

Bicycles don’t stay upright because of gyroscopic forces. You stay upright because you are constantly wobbling! Your bicycle is falling all the time; what stops it from hitting the ground is that it is constantly steering into the fall to bring it upright again. This is why a bicycle will fall over if its wheels get caught in a tramline for example; there is not enough room to steer into the falls. For experienced cyclists the constant steering is barely noticeable; as a new cyclist it is going to be more exaggerated until you get the hang of it. Which is why you need a large space!

“Training somebody to ride a bicycle can be hard work.”

Your helper has just spent time holding the bicycle up with the handlebars. Now they are going to move to the back of the bicycle to hold it up with the saddle or the seat post, so that you can take control of the steering. You can now put into practice what you learnt earlier and combine it with learning how to steer the bicycle to stay upright. Gradually you will get it. At some point you will set off and come to a stop a little distance away. You’ll look back to see where your helper is. Nowhere near you. You did it all on your own!  That’s when it becomes magical! With a bit more practice you will be able to ride the bicycle unaided and control where it goes.

“It was about this point when my trainee turned to me and said, “It’s just like flying!”

You can view another version of this posting at www.stephentaylor.photography

Confessions of an exhibitionist

Visitors at exhibition

When it comes to feedback, it is better to receive than to give.

When I started out as a trainer one of the first things I learnt about was feedback. Not so much how to give it as how to receive it. I don’t do much stand-up training these days but what I learnt then stands me in good stead in many other aspects of my life, and none more so than when I held my first public exhibition of photographic prints.

The art of photography is all about display.

The pictures are taken to share with someone. This might just be friends and family either face to face or on social media. In some cases on the web they may be seen by total strangers but the photographer is one step removed from them and cannot see their reaction. This is not the case when exhibiting in a public space such as a gallery where the photographer can observe their audience’s response unfiltered.

That’s what I put myself through recently when I decided to exhibit some of my photographs in the town I grew up in, Weymouth, on the south coast of England.

The subject of the exhibition was an old railway that runs along the harbourside from the station to the ferry port. In its day, it would take passengers and freight through the streets of the town. As a child, I can remember trains trundling past the houses, so high up the passengers could almost see into the upstairs windows! Sadly, no trains have run on the line for almost twenty years but the railway tracks are still there, running down the middle of the road; a trap for the unwary but mostly ignored. Most of it is gradually disappearing and, despite local efforts to reinstate it, at some point it is likely to be pulled up. I wanted to capture this piece of Weymouth’s heritage before it faded away completely.

For the first time ever I decided to put some of the pictures on public display.

I hired the gallery space in the local library (incidentally only a short distance from the old railway) for a week. Along with the photographs and a few leaflets I left a visitors’ book for comments. This was the first time I had ever attempted anything like this so I was intrigued to see how people responded.

The gallery itself is in a section of the local library so the audience was anyone who wandered into the library to return their books or use the reference section, and not necessarily to view the photographs themselves. I publicised the event and so some of the visitors did come in purely to see the exhibition but most of them simply wandered over to look at them, as they went about their other activities in the library.

Nervously I observed my audience as they approached the photographs.

I visited the library most days of the exhibition. Occasionally I would be on hand to talk to the visitors but mostly I would observe from a distance, and nervously, as people approached the photographs. Sometimes they would walk past them in a matter of seconds, maybe pausing to read the blurb I had written on the subject; sometimes they would pause for a few moments to take in all the pictures, decide it wasn’t for them and then walk on. Others did linger a little longer, moving from photograph to photograph and stopping at each of them. I would discretely time how long they spent at each photograph. The more engaged would move backwards and forwards, returning to previously visited photographs once or twice. Then they would walk over to the visitors’ book…

After an appropriate period, I would wander over to take a look. To be honest most of the comments were complimentary about my work. What I did find was that a lot of people used the opportunity to vent their feelings about the old railway itself. Essentially there are two camps; those who want it ripped out because it represents a hazard, and those would like to see it stay as a symbol of the town’s history. Both groups could be vociferous. Extensive use of SHOUTY CAPITAL LETTERS was made.

Some of the people I spoke to about the exhibition expressed dismay at comments they thought were irrelevant. I am more sanguine. I had my own reason for taking the photographs but once I had chosen to exhibit them that was irrelevant. The photographs were on display to provoke a response. My audience had every right to interpret them and to respond to them on their own terms. This also included them using the opportunity to share with me their own experiences of the railway as it was in its heyday.

Once I had chosen to exhibit my photographs they had taken on a life of their own.

One of the things I learned as a trainer about receiving feedback was it helps you understand how people have interpreted what you have presented them. In those days, my role was to listen and, if necessary present the information in a different way to aid learning. As a photographer publicly displaying his works all I had to do was simply provide a space for the different responses.

Through my photographs I felt privileged to allow people to respond to them on their own terms.

Getting the cogs whirring!

The latest versions of Lectora come with a range of animation effects, including fade and float in which makes for a smoother look and feel. However there doesn’t appear to be a rotate or spin animation effect. So this set the little wheels in my brain whirring and thanks to Math Notermann’s posting on the Trivantis Community I came up with a simple (ish) solution to make a spinning effect.

It is done completely with Lectora’s own capabilities

This was created using a series of timers and the change contents action; no JavaScript or CSS was used. There may be more elegant ways of doing this using some hard coding (feel free to share them in the comments below, if you would like to) but this is a relatively straightforward process which anyone with a knowledge of Lectora should be able to accomplish.

Step 1:
Choose your image


The first action is to create the object you want to spin. I chose a cog.

The next step is, in an image editing software; create multiple versions of your image at slightly different rotations. I rotated my image at 10 degree steps. Depending upon the complexity of your image you will not need to create images for every step. In my case the image rotated to 90 degrees looked the same as the original so, with 10 degree steps, I only had to create eight images.

Make sure you name all the images so they are easily identifiable.

Step 2:
Add your images to the Lectora title

And then delete all but the first one. This makes sure all the images are available when you apply the change contents action.

Alternatively, copy the images to the images subfolder for your Lectora title.

Step 3:
Set up timers and action groups

Screenshot of timer

Add a number of timers to the page;

turn off the auto start and set them as initially hidden – you don’t need to be able to see them in run mode. Set them to count down and the timer to one second.

Screenshot of action group

Create a number of action groups containing two actions:

  1. Change contents of the image on your page to the next rotated image file
  2. Play the next timer in line

Back in the timer set the done playing action to run each action group so timer one should run action group one, and so on.

Set an action to start the first timer – and the animation effect! Or you could set the first timer to start automatically.

How to get your rotation to stop and start in the same place

So you have set up a series of timers which, on finishing, sets off an action group to change the contents of the image to create the illusion of it rotating. Each action group then sets off the next timer to keep the spinning going. You might also have created a button that starts the first timer off.

What if you want to stop the spinning and start again from where you left off?

Hitting the start button again will jump back to the start image which does not allow for a very smooth rotation.

Screenshot of actions

In each action group set an action to modify a variable that increments by one each time until you get to the last action group where you should reset it to its first value.Screenshot of actions properties

Now on your start button modify your action to play timer one only if the variable is at its first value. Then create a series of actions for all the other timers to start if the variable is at the relevant value. The stop button just needs to stop all of them.

You can now start and stop your cogs from whirring!

You can view the example and download the files from the Trivantis Community. If you have any comments, please add them below.

Things I wish I’d known when I first starting using Lectora Part 1

Opening new software for the first time can be intimidating.

All these features which in time will make your life easier can look overwhelming right at the start.

I have been using and training people in Lectora for many years now.

I thought I would put together some of the things I have picked up over the years that might be useful to new users.

This is series of infographics. Number 1 is all about the title explorer, layering, inheriting and naming objects.

Click on thumbnail below to download the first one. 

And watch this space for future infographics.

Infographic showing how to use the Title Explorer in Lectora
Infographic: Starting Lectora 1 – The Title Explorer

Changing contents


Lectora has an option to change the state of buttons but currently the states are active or inactive only (there is also a down and over state when you click or hover over them). There is no option to create a selected or visited state, for example. You may want to include these to allow the learner to see which buttons they have clicked to keep track of their actions.

Trivantis may have plans to update this but in the meantime a simple workaround is to create multiple image files for active, selected, visited and inactive, and use the change contents action to have them switch state.

I have created a couple of examples which you can view from the links below. You can also download Lectora library objects from the same links.

Example 1: active, inactive and selected

In the first example, the learners are required to click the buttons in order. There are three images for each button: inactive, active and selected. This example could be used if you need your learners to click on topics in a certain order. The inactive topics become active (and change to the active image) once the previous button has been clicked. A chosen button changes to the selected state until another button is clicked.

Example 2: active, selected and visited

In the second example, the learners can click on the buttons in any order. Clicking on a button changes its state to selected and any previously clicked buttons to a visited state.

How this was achieved

  1. Create the images for the buttons in each state and add them to the page as images.
  2. Delete all but the images for the state you want them to be in initially
  3. Have an action on each image to change the contents of the object to the selected state image when clicked
  4. Create additional actions to change the states of the other buttons to visited, active etc. You will need to include variables to record when a button has been clicked

Relearning old tricks

rolls of 35mm film

I recently relived the experiences (and the smells!) of the darkroom.  Many years ago in the pre-digital age I spent a great deal of time printing and developing my own photographs but, like many others, I moved away from the older technology. In a sense it is very similar to many trainers I know.They have moved from the analogue world of stand-up training to the digital world of e-learning design and development. Sometimes it is great to revisit some of those older skills.

Recently, when a family member needed a film camera for a course she was attending, I remembered that I had a Canon EOS 600 (one of their last generation film cameras) lying around at home so I loaned it to her. Once her course was finished I decided to have a go at it myself and took some black and white photographs on a cycle ride in Dorset on the south coast of England.


Film photography is a slower process, not only in the obvious way that I do not see the results immediately but also in the fact that I tend to take longer to take a single photograph. Rather  than taking pictures from every angle as I would with the digital camera I spent more time walking around and observing the objects from different angles before I even set the camera up and pressed the shutter button. And there were occasions, mindful that I only had thirty-six exposures rather than the  seemingly unlimited number on a digital camera, that I simply did not press the button at all and did not take the picture. I would suggest film photography is a much more reflective process than digital.

You can view digitalised versions (scanned from the negatives) here but obviously the real thing I wanted to do was to make my own prints so the other Sunday I spent several hours in a darkroom relearning the skills of creating a test strip to decide the correct exposure, and burning and dodging to manipulate the final image.


Apart from reliving the experiences of photographic printing it was also the first time I had been on a training course for a long time so it was fascinating, as a one-time stand-up trainer to watch another trainer at work, especially if it is a subject I knew a little bit about.

The trainer was a professional printer and developer who had worked with many famous photographers including the late Linda McCartney, so he knew his subject inside out and he had swathes of enthusiasm for the darkroom! Enthusiasm always comes in handy when you are running a training course – for the delegates everything looks like it is going along perfectly but underneath there is always a lot going on including last minute re-ordering.

Being a trainer is a little bit like being a swan – on the surface you glide along whilst underneath you are frantically splashing away.

It is always interesting to observe the structure and order of the topics. What does the trainer think you need to know first before moving on to other topics. Interestingly one thing we did not cover was printing a contact sheet of our negatives which I have seen listed as a topic in other darkroom courses. There is no wrong or right way but it does reflect what the main learning outcomes of the course might be. In some cases it may be that printing a contact sheet could lead on to a discussion about choice of photographs which could include topics such as composition, exposure, etc. Our course was practical and we jumped straight into printing our own photographs. Both approaches are valid but they reflect the different ways the subject could be delivered and also, possibly, a bit of the personality of the trainer.

It was a great day and a big thank you to Nick at Photofusion in Brixton for running the course in such an enthusiastic and knowledgeable manner.

Curtains for Lectora

When it comes to creating e-learning for adults it is usually better to let them find out things for themselves. They will occasions when you will need to guide them, giving them the information they need to complete an activity, to sum up afterwards, or to provide additional background material. Sometimes this can be quite extensive and, with limited real estate on the page, it can be quite a challenge.

One solution is to have the info slide in and out in a curtains effect.

One possible solution is to have the information slide on and off the screen in a carousel or curtains effect. You can view my attempt at creating some curtains in Lectora on the Trivantis Community as part of their regular competition. The theme this time was summer holidays so I took the opportunity to share some of my holiday snaps!

Essentially it was a series of tabs with associated grouped objects (in my case, text and images). Clicking on a tab moved it and slid the group into view. Clicking a second time would move it back. Each tab would also have to move the other groups backwards and forwards. Some of the groups would start and end off the screen. A series of variables took care of moving the objects in the right direction.

The images themselves were taken on an early Spring weekend (rather than my Summer holiday) to the city of Prague. What I wanted to show with these photographs was some of the slightly less well known parts of a place that has become a very popular destination for short breaks but has a long history. If you like the pictures you can see more of them on my Flickr account.

You can view the results and download the Lectora files here. If you have any questions do feel free to let me know.